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Mining and refining

Analysis of ores, feeds, slag, tails and metals

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Whether the determination entails measurement of ores, feed, slags, or tailings in the mining process, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is one of the most commonly employed technique for these routine determinations of metal bearing minerals as well as metals and their oxides.

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the key technique for characterizing the element composition of geological materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is employed to quantitatively measure phase composition. Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data is now recognized as the most powerful method available for quantitative crystalline phase analysis. Rigaku technology and expertise provide a number of unique solutions for these determinations.

Mining and refining

Rigaku recommends the following systems:


  • Benchtop tube below sequential WDXRF spectrometer analyzes O through U in solids, liquids and powders

  • New 6th-generation general purpose benchtop XRD system for phase i.d and phase quantification

  • New 6th-generation general purpose benchtop XRD system for phase i.d and phase quantification

  • High power, tube below, sequential WDXRF spectrometer with Smart Sample Loading System (SSLS)

  • High power, tube above, sequential WDXRF spectrometer with new ZSX Guidance expert system software

  • High power, tube above, sequential WDXRF spectrometer

  • High-throughput tube below multi-channel simultaneous WDXRF spectrometer analyzes Be through U

  • Performance EDXRF elemental analyzer measures Na to U in solids, liquids, powders and thin-films

  • New 60 kV EDXRF system featuring QuantEZ software and optional standardless analysis

  • New variable collimator small spot 60 kV EDXRF system featuring QuantEZ software.

  • EDXRF spectrometer with powerful Windows® software and optional FP.

  • High-performance, Cartesian-geometry EDXRF elemental analyzer measures Na to U in solids, liquids, powders and thin films

Application notes

The following application notes are relevant to this industry