Curvature of a single crystal substrate may occur during the thin film fabrication process because of differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and the film material. Since curvature can affect the subsequent manufacturing process and characteristics of products, quantitative evaluation of the degree of curvature is required. When a single crystal substrate is curved, the orientation of the lattice planes changes depending on the position on the sample. This change can be evaluated by an X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurement and converted to the curvature radius by a simple equation.
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